Barbara Walker-Renshaw  

Partner

Executive Summary

Barbara Walker-Renshaw practises healthcare law generally with a specialty focus on mental health law, including advocacy before the Ontario Review Board, the Consent and Capacity Board, in medical malpractice litigation, Coroner's inquests and Commissions of Inquiry. She has appeared at all levels of Court in Ontario, including the Court of Appeal. Barbara provides general counsel advice on mental health law issues for specialty psychiatric facilities, acute care hospitals and community hospitals. She also has experience with clinical trial agreements, Research Ethics Boards, hospital and medical staff bylaws, including physician privileges, and privacy of health information. She is a partner in the Health Law Group at the Toronto office of Borden Ladner Gervais LLP.

Barbara completed her articles by serving as a law clerk to the Hon. Madam Justice Louise Arbour at the Supreme Court of Canada (1999-2000). Prior to attending law school, Barbara worked in corporate communications and more recently, in the not-for-profit sector, where she was involved in the delivery of social service programs to women disadvantaged by poverty, sexual assault and domestic violence.

Representative Work

  • Representing forensic psychiatric facilities before the Ontario Review Board and on appeals of those decisions at the Court of Appeal.
    • Re Chaudry, 2015 ONCA 317, 125 O.R. (3d) 641 (C.A.) — Represented the Appellant Person in Charge of an Ontario forensic psychiatric facility in an appeal of an Ontario Review Board Disposition which had awarded costs against the Hospital, on its motion and without notice to the parties, as a remedy for an alleged violation of the patient's Charter rights. The appeal was allowed and the Hospital's view prevailed on all issues before the Court, namely that the Board erred in finding that the Hospital had violated the patient's Charter rights; the Board erred when it assumed jurisdiction to award costs as a remedy for a Charter breach; and the Board erred by awarding costs on its motion, without providing notice to the Hospital. In these circumstances, the Court held that the forensic facility was a "person" to whom the Board owed a duty of procedural fairness.
    • Re Kachkar (2014 ONCA 250) – Represented the respondent Person in Charge of an Ontario forensic psychiatric facility in an appeal of an Ontario Review Board disposition brought by the Crown; included successful motion brought by the Person in Charge to adduce additional evidence. Available on line.
    • Re Tyrell (2013 ONCA 170) – Represented the appellant Person in Charge of an Ontario forensic psychiatric facility in a successful appeal of an Ontario Review Board disposition which had absolutely discharged the respondent accused; included a successful motion brought by the Person in Charge to adduce additional evidence.
    • Re MacLean (2012 ONCA 909) – Represented the respondent Person in Charge of an Ontario forensic psychiatric facility in an appeal brought by the patient of an Ontario Review Board disposition; the appeal was dismissed.
    • Ontario Shores Centre for Mental Health Sciences v. Darch, 2010 ONCA 36 (CanLII) – Represented the Person in Charge on the successful appeal of an absolute discharge issued by the Ontario Review Board. 
  • Representing healthcare providers before the Consent and Capacity Board ("CCB") and on appeals of those decisions, including reviews of findings of incapacity, involuntary and informal admissions, substitute decision-making, Community Treatment Orders and admissions to long-term care facilities:
    • L.A. v Waisman, 2016 ONSC 6514 — Represented the respondent physician in an appeal of a CCB decision that confirmed the physician's finding that the patient was incapable with respect to treatment with anti-psychotic and ancillary side effect medications. The finding of incapacity turned on the appellant's inability to recognize the possibility that he may be affected by a major mental illness and by its manifestations. The Court dismissed the appeal, finding that the Board did not err in concluding that the appellant was unable to appreciate the reasonably foreseeable consequences of a decision or lack of decision.
    • D.P. v Pichette, 2016 ONSC 6238 — Represented the respondent physician in an appeal of a CCB decision that confirmed that the criteria for issuing a Community Treatment Order ("CTO") in respect of the appellant were met at the time of the hearing. The appellant argued that there had been a breach of procedural fairness when the Board confirmed the CTO without considering whether the physician had demonstrated that there was a valid statutory purpose to the CTO, as described in section 331.(3) of the Mental Health Act, in particular, by curtailing his cross-examination of the respondent on this issue. The Court dismissed the patient's appeal, finding that the Board's jurisdiction on the review of a CTO is set out in section 39(6) of the Act, which is to confirm whether the criteria set out in section 33.1(4) are met. The Court held that if section 33.1(3) (the purposes section) were anything more than a "helpful guideline", it "would have been written into subsection 33.1(4) as one of the criteria to be met."
    • M.I. v Guimond, 2016 ONSC 5533 — Represented the respondent physician in an appeal of a CCB decision that confirmed the physician's finding that the patient was incapable with respect to treatment with anti-psychotic medications. In this appeal, the appellant argued that the Board's decision was unreasonable as the respondent physician has failed to perform a proper assessment of the patient's capacity and further, failed to provide him with sufficient treatment-related information. In addition, the appellant argued that the CCB mis-applied the test for capacity as set out in section 4 of the Health Care Consent Act. The Court dismissed the appeal, finding that the respondent physician, who had a lengthy treating relationship with the appellant, was able to assess the patient in the context of that history, as observations of the appellant's current condition would be compared and contrasted to past observations. In particular, the Court found that the process of assessing capacity does not require a physician to disregard prior experience and observations, so long as the assessment is of the present condition of the patient. In addition, the Court concluded that the Board had not mis-applied the statutory test.
    • A.J. v Tugg, 2016 ONSC 5533 — Represented the respondent physician in an appeal of a CCB decision confirming a finding that the appellant was incapable of consenting to treatment with antipsychotic medication. The appellant argued that the respondent physician had not sufficiently explained the benefits of treatment and therefore the Board could not reasonably conclude that patient was unable to appreciate reasonable foreseeable risks and benefits of treatment (the second branch of the test for capacity).  The Court dismissed the appeal finding that there was ample evidence before the Board that the appellant did not satisfy the second branch of the test of capacity to consent to treatment. There was evidence that the appellant did not recognize the possibility that he was affected by a mental condition and therefore, could not appreciate the reasonable foreseeable consequences of a treatment decision. The conclusion of the Board was was within a range of reasonable outcomes and should not be overturned.
    • M.R. v Wong, 2016 ONCA 540 — Represented the respondent physician in an appeal of a Superior Court Decision to the Court of Appeal. The Superior Court had quashed the Appellant's appeal of a CCB decision that he was incapable with respect to treatment on the grounds that the appeal was moot. The respondent physician had brought a motion to quash the appeal based on fresh evidence, which the lower court had admitted, that established that several months after the CCB decision, and before the appeal of the CCB decision was heard, the respondent physician had determined that the appellant had regained his capacity to consent to treatment and had consented to the very treatment that was the subject of the CCB's decision. Further, following the resumption of treatment, the appellant had been discharged from the respondent's care when he was transferred to another psychiatric facility, pursuant to a disposition of the Ontario Review Board. The Court of Appeal confirmed that the Superior Court had correctly applied the two-step test to determine whether a dispute is moot, as set out by the Supreme Court of Canada in Borowski v. Canada. Namely, there was no longer a live issue between the parties as the appellant's capacity to consent to treatment had been restored and secondly, the court chose not to exercise its discretion to hear a moot appeal.  On appeal to the Court of Appeal, the appellant argued that the lower court judge erred by neglecting, in the exercise of his discretion, to apply standards that would be appropriate for mental health litigants and by failing to recognize that the appeal raised an issue of public importance. The Court of Appeal disagreed with both arguments and dismissed the appeal. 
    • D.L. v Younker, Superior Court Endorsement, July 20, 2016 — Represented the respondent physician in an appeal of a CCB decision confirming the criteria for issuing a Community Treatment Order ("CTO") were met and the physician's finding that the patient was incapable with respect to treatment decisions. The Court dismissed the appeals finding that decision to confirm the CTO and Dr. Younker's finding of incapacity were reasonable and supported by the evidence.
    • R.J. v Zalan, 2016 ONSC 2337 — Represented the respondent physician in an appeal of a Consent and Capacity Board decision which confirmed her involuntary admission as a patient at a psychiatric facility and the respondent physician's determination that she was not capable of consent to treatment with antipsychotic medication. The Court dismissed the patient's appeal and found that despite some errors in the original involuntary committal form, the Board's decision that RJ was legally admitted as an involuntary patient was reasonable. The errors were trifling and did not affect the substance of the form. Further the Board's decision to confirm the patient's incapacity to consent to treatment was reasonable.
    • K.M. v. Shammi, 2012 ONSC 1102 (CanLII) – Represented the respondent physician on an appeal brought by a patient of the decision of the Consent and Capacity Board confirming the physician's finding that the patient was incapable with respect to treatment; following the initiation of her appeal, the patient was discharged from the hospital and was no longer under the care of the respondent physician; the court accepted the respondent physician's argument that the appeal was therefore moot. 
    • Re L.A., 2012 CanLII 26786 (ON CCB) Represented the respondent physician, in a review of a patient's involuntary admission. 
    • Re F, 2009 CanLII 53019 (ON CCB) – Represented the moving physician, who had applied to the Board for directions with respect to proposed electro-convulsive therapy and psychiatric pharmacological treatment, in a patient suffering from severe bipolar disorder. At issue was whether a prior wish with respect to some of the treatment was a prior capable wish applicable in the circumstances.  The finding of incapacity was confirmed and the Board also found that the prior wish was not  a prior capable wish. 
    • S.M.T. v. Abouelnasr, 2008 CanLII 14550 (ON SC) – Represented the respondent physician in an appeal of a decision of the Consent and Capacity Board, which had confirmed the attending physician's finding that  Mr. T was incapable with respect to treatment and that he met the criteria for an involuntary admission.  Mr. T also alleged that certain provisions of the Health Care Consent Act  violated his rights under sections 7, 12 and 15 of the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms, as Mr. T required restraint in order for treatment to be administered.   The appeal was dismissed.
    • Re B.S., 2008 CanLII 21885 (ON CCB), represented the respondent evaluators in application brought by the patient to review the evaluators' finding that she was incapable with respect to admission to a long term care facility; the Board confirmed the evaluators finding.
  • Defending hospital and hospital staff in civil litigation at all levels of court in Ontario, including allegations of Charter of Rights violations.
    • Doucette v. Medical Officer of Health, 2011 ONSC 5774 – Represented the respondent hospital on an application brought by a patient for a writ of habeas corpus and for remedies under section 7 of the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms, in relation to her detention at the hospital pursuant to an order made by the Medical Officer of Health under the Health Protection and Promotion Act.  
    • B.(C.) v. Sawadsky, 82 O.R. (3d) 661 (2006, C.A.) – The plaintiff was taken to the defendant hospital by police officers acting under the authority of a Form 2 under s. 16 of the Mental Health Act.  The plaintiff was detained under a Form 1 for further assessment, following which she was released.  The plaintiff brought an action against the hospital and the first doctor to examine her, claiming damages for false imprisonment and violation of her rights under sections 8,9 and 10 of the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms.  At trial, the action was dismissed by Karakatsanis J. (as she then was) of the Superior Court of Justice, [2005] O.J. No. 3682 (S.C.J.).  The plaintiff's appeal was dismissed by the Ontario Court of Appeal.  Leave to appeal to the Supreme Court of Canada was dismissed, 2007 CanLII 10546 (SCC). 
  • Representing an intervenor in the Starson v. Swayze appeal before the Supreme Court of Canada.
  • Representing healthcare professionals before College Complaints Committees and the Health Professions Appeal and Review Board.
  • Representing hospital clients, non-profit corporations and healthcare professionals before Coroner's Inquests and public inquiries.
  • Providing general advice to hospitals on hospital protocols and policies dealing with a wide variety of medico-legal and governance issues.

Publications & Presentations

  • Author, A Practical Guide to Mental Health and the Law in Ontario, Ontario Hospital Association, 3rd edition, September 2016 (with Katharine Byrick, BLG).
  • Speaker, "Preparing for a Capacity Hearing before the Consent and Capacity Board", 2016 Legal Guide to Consent, Capacity & Substitute Decision Making, a conference held at Osgoode Hall Law School's Professional Development Centre, June 23, 2016.
  • Speaker, "The Role of the Parties: The Hospital, the Treatment Team and the Crown", Second Annual Criminal Lawyers Mental Health Conference: Advocacy before the Ontario Review Board, Toronto, Ontario, April 2, 2016.
  • Author, "Update on Ontario's Bill 122 Amendments to the Mental Health Act and Health Care Consent Act", Health Law Matters (Lexis Nexis), March 2016 No. 261, pp. 1-4
  • Speaker, "Major Legal Decisions: Update and Review for the Practising Forensic Psychiatrist", Annual Winter Conference, Canadian Academy of Psychiatry and the Law, March 6, 2016.
  • Co-Author, "Will the S.C.C.'s Decision on Physician-Assisted Death Apply to Persons Suffering from Severe Mental Illness?", Health Law in Canada, Vol 36, No. 3, February 2016.
  • Speaker, "Bill 122:  Amendments to the Mental Health Act affecting Long term Involuntary Patients", Grand Rounds, Academic Health Sciences Centre, January 13, 2016
  • Co-Author, "Physician-Assisted Death In Canada: The Next Four Months", Health Law Bulletin, January 2016.
  • Co-Author, “Carter v. Canada (Attorney General):  Will the Supreme Court of Canada's Decision on Physician-assisted Death Apply to Persons Suffering from Severe Mental Illness?”, Journal of Ethics and Mental Health, Open Volume 1, November 20, 2015.
  • Speaker, “Legal Overview of the Use of Restraints in Ontario Hospitals”, Ontario Hospital Association Webcast, August 18, 2015.
  • Speaker, “Recent Developments in Canadian Appellate Case Law in Forensic Psychiatric Matters:  Implications for Practice”, 9th Annual Risk and Recovery Conference, St. Joseph's Healthcare Hamilton and McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, April 9, 2015.
  • Speaker, “Recent Noteworthy Appeals in Forensic Mental Health Law: Implications for Forensic Hospitals and Psychiatric Practice,” 20th Annual Winter Conference of the Canadian Academy of Psychiatry and the Law, Québec City, March 4 2015.
  • Author, "Interim Treatment Orders: Facilitating Treatment Pending Final Disposition of Treatment Capacity Appeals," Reproduced with the permission of the publisher LexisNexis Canada Inc. from Health Law in Canada, Vol. 35, No. 3, February 2015.
  • Speaker, “The 2003 SARS Outbreak: Lessons Learned," Outbreaks of Emerging Pathogens — Preparedness and Control, The Ontario Hospital Association conference, January 30, 2015.
  • Speaker, “Ethical Issues and Regulatory Matters,” part of a panel discussion on “Transitioning Patients Out of Hospital” at the Ontario Hospital Association’s Conference, Mental Health: Building Capacity and Inspiring Innovation, December 4, 2014.
  • Steering Committee member and co-host,  “Strategic Roundtable on the Implications of Bill C-14 for designated forensic hospitals and the mental health care system,” September 29 2014.
  • Quoted, "Community access granted for NCR man who killed cop,”  The Lawyers Weekly, April 25, 2014. 
  • Chair and speaker, Ontario Hospital Association conference on Mental Health and the Law, London, Ontario; presented on "Forensic Mental Health and the Law: Practical Implications";  "Hot Topics in Mental Health Law"; and Moderator, Panel Presentation on Complex Clinical Situations in Mental Health Care";  May 29, 2014.
  • Chair and speaker, Health Care Risk Management Conference; presented on "Challenges and Risks Associated with Mental Health Care," April 29, 2014.
  • Speaker, "Mental Health Care at the Intersection of Ethics and the Law," Professional Development Seminar, Joint Centre for Bioethics, University of Toronto, January 6, 2014.
  • Speaker, "Bill C-54: An Act to Amend to Part XX.1 of the Criminal Code – Implications for Forensic Psychiatric Hospitals," presentation to specialty psychiatric hospital; November 12, 2013.
  • Speaker, "Assessing Medico-Legal Risk Issues in Mental Health Care," HIROC Adjusters and Lawyers Conference, November 5, 2013.
  • Panelist, "Medical and Legal Perspectives on Bill C-54," "NCR: Not Criminally Responsible" – Film Screening and Panel Discussions, Osgoode Law School, November 1, 2013.
  • Speaker, "Hot Topics in Mental Health Law," Ontario Hospital  Association, Mental Health and Patient Safety Conference, September 20, 2013.
  • Quoted, "Incapacity Finding Unreasonable, Appeal Court Rules," The Lawyers Weekly, September 6, 2013.
  • Speaker, "Interacting with the Courts, Report Writing and Forms under the Mental Health Act and Criminal Code" and "Use of Restraints: Balancing Safety and Least Restraint Principles," Ontario Hospital Association, Mental Health and the Law Conference, Ottawa, May 21, 2013.
  • Speaker, “ Code Yellow: Legal Implications," HIROC Webinar, April 4, 2013.
  • Author, “Assessing Capacity to Consent to Sexual Activity: Legal Considerations,” Journal of Ethics in Mental Health, 2012, vol. 7, Special Supplement: Sexual Behaviours.
  • Speaker, “Suicide:  A Clinical and Legal Discourse,” HIROC Webinar, November 2012.
  • Speaker, “Mental Health and the Law,” Ontario Hospital Association webcast, November 2012.
  • Author, A Practical Guide to Mental Health and the Law in Ontario, 2nd edition, an Ontario Hospital Association Knowledge Centre Toolkit (#325), 2012 (with Katharine Byrick).
  • Author, “Mental Health Law,” Ch. 7, Canadian Health Law Practice Manual, LexisNexis Canada, 2012.
  • Speaker, “Current Legal, Administrative and Ethical Issues in Forensic Practice,” Canadian Academy of Psychiatry and the Law Conference, March 2012 (with Dr. Phil Klassen and Ms. Rosanna Macri, Bio-ethicist).
  • Speaker, “Evidence before the Ontario Review Board and the Consent and Capacity Board: Guidelines for Potential Witnesses,” Forensic Seminar Series, Academic Health Sciences Centre, January 2012.
  • Speaker, “Intimate Relations between patients: Policy, Legal and Risk Issues,” Grand Rounds presentation, Academic Health Sciences Centre, November 2011.
  • Speaker, “Suicide: Risk, Legal and Policy Issues in Ontario Hospitals,” Patient Safety in Mental Health Conference: Shining a Light on Suicide, September 2011.
  • Panel Moderator, “Implications of R. v. Conway (SCC) for hospital counsel appearing before the Ontario Review Board,” Academic Health Sciences Centre, October 2010.
  • Author, “Legislative Changes Impacting Mental Health and Addiction Services: An Update,” Ontario Hospital Association, September 2010 (with Katharine Byrick).
  • Speaker, “Clinical and legal issues in assessing Consent and Capacity and their impact on evidence before the Consent and Capacity Board,” Academic Health Sciences Centre, May 2010 (with Dr. Michael Colleton).
  • Speaker, “Mental Health Law in Clinical Practice”, Grand Rounds presentation, GTA Hospital, March 2010.
  • Speaker, “Consent in Special Contexts: End of Life Decision Making, Human Reproduction and Clinical Trials,” Osgoode Certificate in Health Law, March 2010
  • Author, “Coroners Act Being Amended to Add Oversight and Accountability,” Health Law in Canada, 2009, 30(1): 23-24 (with Tanya Goldberg).
  • Author, “Restraint to Facilitate Treatment: Is it Compatible with Least Restraint Principles?” Journal of Ethics in Mental Health, 2009, 4(1).
    (http://www.jemh.ca/issues/v4n1/documents/JEMH_Vol4_No1_Benchmark_Restraint_to_Facilitate_Treatment_Apr09.pdf)
  • Speaker, “Recovery of Damages for Mental Distress: Mustapha v. Culligan of Canada Ltd.,” Ontario Bar Association forum “Critical Issues in Health Law: Case Law and Legislation Update,” April 2009.
  • Speaker, “Collection and Disclosure of Personal Health Information in the Mental Health Care Context,” Presentation at the “Managing Legal Risks and Responsibilities in Mental Health Care,” The Canadian Institute Conference, April 2009.
  • Guest Lecturer, “A Cross Canada Review of Community Treatment Orders for Psychiatric Illness,” Dalhousie Law School’s Health Law Institute’s Seminar Series on Health Law and Policy, November 2008.
  • Speaker, “General Principles of Consent to Treatment: A Refresher on Capacity Law,” Ontario Hospital Association Conference on Consent Issues in Health Care, May 2008.
  • Speaker, “Research Ethics Boards and the Internet: A discussion of privacy and accountability issues,” Academic Health Sciences Centre, February 2008.
  • Speaker, “Current Issues in Law and Procedure before the Ontario Review Board” and “Consent to Treatment: A Refresher on Capacity Law, Mental Health Law Conference, October 2007.
  • Speaker, “The Ontario Review Board: An Overview,” Presentation, September 2007.
  • Speaker, “Privacy Law: An Overview in the Health care sector,” Presentation to non-profit health care related charity, September 2007.
  • Author, “Case Comment: B.(C.) v. Sawadsky et al.,” Risk Management in Canadian Health Care, June 2007; a case comment on a recent court decision considering a Form 1 detention under Ontario’s Mental Health Act.
  • Instructor, Ontario Hospital Association Course on Principles and Applications of Health Law, four modules on “Preparing to Give Evidence,” “Coroner’s Inquests: An Overview,” “Communicating with the Police” and “Privacy of Personal Health Information in the Mental Healthcare Context,” presented to staff at forensic psychiatric facility, May 2007.
  • Speaker, “The 2003 SARS Outbreak: Lessons for Pandemic Planning,” Defense Research Institute’s Medical Liability and Health Law Conference, March 2007.
  • Speaker, “Patient Restraint in Emergent Situations,” presentation to academic health sciences centre staff, January 2007.
  • Speaker, “The Ontario Review Board: Recent Developments in the Case Law,” Presentation to medical and Hospital staff at a forensic psychiatric facility, November 2006.
  • Speaker, “Mandatory Blood Testing: An Overview of Canadian Legislation,” First Canadian Conference on The Public’s Health and the Law, November 2006.
  • Speaker, “Risk Management During a Pandemic: Looking Back to Plan Ahead,” March 9, 2006.
  • Speaker, “Consent and Capacity Law,” Ontario Hospital Association’s Health Law Essentials Course, October 2005.
  • Speaker, “Coroners’ Inquests: What to expect and How to prepare,” Ontario Hospital Association’s Health Law Essentials Course, October 2005.
  • Speaker, “The Health Care Provider’s Response to Woman and Child Abuse: Legal Issues,” Women’s Health Challenge Conference, St. Joseph’s Health Centre, September 2005.
  • Author/Speaker, “Managing Legal Vulnerabilities Arising from Adverse Drug Outcomes,” The Canadian Institute’s Drug Safety Summit, June 2005 (with John J. Morris).
  • Speaker, “Consent to Treatment in Psychiatric Facilities,” Ontario Hospital Association’s Mental Health Law Conference, February 2005.
  • Author, “S.A.R.S.: Risk Management and Medico-Legal Issues,” BLG’s Health Law Bulletin, April 2003.
  • Speaker, “Consent to Treatment: An Overview of the Legal Framework,” Ontario Hospital Association, Health Law Essentials Course, April 2003.
  • Speaker, “Effective Health Care Governance,” Ontario Hospital Association Conference for Health Care Trustees, April 2003.
  • Speaker, “Restraints: An Update,” Ontario Hospital Association Consent to Treatment Conference, December 2002.
  • Speaker, “Effectively Implementing a Community Treatment Order,” Canadian Insight Mental Health Law Conference, December 2002.
  • Speaker, “Consent to Treatment: An Overview of the Legal Framework,” Ontario Hospital Association, Health Law Essentials Course, October 2002.
  • Speaker, “Co-operating with the Police and Coroner’s Investigations: Special Issues for Mental Health Service Providers,” in-service training presentation to Mental Health Program members at client hospital, June 2002.
  • Speaker, “Electronic Sharing of Personal Health Information,” Ontario Hospital Association Conference: Round 3: Ontario’s New Draft Privacy Legislation, May 2002.
  • Author, “Co-operating with the Coroner: An Overview,” HIROC Risk Management Bulletin, May 2002.
  • Author, “Community Treatment Orders: The Standard of Review and the Constitutional Challenge,” BLG Health Law Group, Hospital Law Report, October 2001.
  • Author/Speaker, “Ontario’s New Patient Restraints Minimization Act, 2001: Codifying a Policy of Least Restraint,” Ontario Hospital Association Conference, Risk Management: Avoiding Perils and Pitfalls, September 2001.
  • Author, “Liability and Shared Psychiatric Care,” 2nd Annual Conference on Shared Care sponsored by St. Joseph’s Health Care Centre and Ontario’s Ministry of Health and Long Term Care, June 2001 (with Arthur Fish).
  • Author, “Causation and Fetal Asphyxia: An Update,” The Canadian Institute Conference, Reducing the Risk of Obstetric Malpractice, March 2001 (with William D.T. Carter).

Rankings & Recognitions

  • Selected by peers for inclusion in the 2018 edition (and since 2015) of The Best Lawyers in Canada® (Health Care Law).
  • Recognized in the 2016 edition (and since 2013) of The Canadian Legal Lexpert Directory (Medical Negligence).