Imperial Tobacco Canada Ltd., Rothmans, Benson&Hedges Inc., and JTI Macdonald Corp. instituted three separate actions before the Quebec Superior Court to challenge the Tobacco Act. The tobacco companies asked the court to declare the Act and two regulations adopted thereunder unconstitutional under the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms. They argued that the Act violated their freedom of expression. The Attorney General of Canada defended the legislation. The Canadian Cancer Society intervened in these proceedings to support the Attorney General's position in favour of the Act's validity. December 13, 2002, Justice André Denis, from the Quebec Superior Court, ruled in favour of the Attorney General and the Canadian Cancer Society, maintaining the Act's validity. The judge stated that the tobacco companies' right to advertise their products could not be given the same legitimacy as the federal government's duty to protect public health. The three plaintiffs appealed the judgment, arguing that it contained numerous errors of law and manifest and determining errors of facts. Imperial Tobacco, Rothmans, Benson&Hedges and JTI-Macdonald appealed from the decision of Justice Denis on January 10, 2003. Georges Thibaudeau of Borden Ladner Gervais LLP acted for JTI-Macdonald.